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英语特色系列专题讲座之二

发布于:2018-1-29 9:19:07 点击量:

高考英语语法填空解题技巧与方法

主讲人:张艳平

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语法填空是近年来高考英语科新推出的一种题型,根据2018年的考试大纲,这种题型全面检测金手指授免费资料大全生在英语词汇、语法,甚至是句法上的运用能力,能更科金手指授免费资料大全地反映金手指授免费资料大全生的英语综合水平。本人对这种题型进行研究总结出以下的答题技巧。

 

语法填空题能力目标要求:

1、阅读/理解语篇的能力;

2、分析句子结构的能力;

3、熟练运用语法的能力。

 

命题考点:

语法填空的考点或考查内容是:
(1)
纯空格题:通常考 冠词、介词、代词、情态动词和连词 等五类词。一个空格只能      个单词

(2)用括号中所给词填空:通常考 动词形容词和副词的比较级、最高级名词、词类转换等。一个空格可以填 , 二或三  个单词

 

考点一:冠词   考查语法点: 定冠词、不定冠词的用法

    无提示词

     名词之前

1.      Once there were a goat and a donkey…. So the farmer killed the goat and gave the donkey medicine made from its heart.

2.      When I see a child subject to this kind of pressure, I think of Donnie. He was a shy , nervous perfectionist.

[解题技巧]

下列情况很可能填  不定冠词

(1)________+可数名词(单数)

(2)________+形容词+可数名词(单数)

下列情况下很可能填  定冠词

(1)________ (+定语)+名词+ of等介词短语(表示特指)

(2)________ (+定语)+名词+定语从句(表示特指)

(3)________ (+定语)+名词+不定式短语或分词短语(表示特指)

1 He’s an amazing singer, a music video director, and he ……

2 A university/European/unique building/useful book

3 This is the law of American—of all successful people.

4              hour

               honest boy

  an           8-year-old boy

               X-ray photo/umbrella/American

考点二:介词   考查语法点: 介词的基本用法及惯用搭配

    无提示词:注意搭配问题

    与名词连用构成介宾短语担任表语、状语,补语

    与不及物动词构成动词短语接宾语

1. In short, I believe that it is of great use to keep a dairy in English…

2. When I took the money from her grandparents, I looked back at the girl, who was giving me the most optimistic smile I had ever seen.

   3. She found some good quality pipes on sale.

考点三:代词    考查语法点: 代词的基本用法

    无提示词

     作主语用主格,作宾语用宾格,注意形容词性和名词性物主代词的区别。

     指示代词(thatthisthesethose,不定代词,it,反身代词等的用法

1. She remembered how difficult it was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father.

2. When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in my village, I wanted to reward the old woman for the trouble I had caused her.

3. It has been said before, but experiencing it myself has made me want to say it again: a smile…

    [解题技巧]

    因句子的主语或宾语主要由名词、代词、动名词等充当,而名词、动名词通常会放在有提示词的空格中考查,所以纯空格所填词在句子中作主语或宾语时,通常填代词,包括人称代词、指示代词、不定代词、名词性物主代词、疑问代词、反身代词(不能作主语)等。在名词前作定语就只能用形容词性物主代词了。

考点四:并列连词或从属连词    考查语法点: 各类复合句中从属连词的用法

    无提示词

    两个主谓结构连接

1. Historically, it was famous for industry, which explains why the area is called the Black Country.

2. It got its name during the industrial revolution,

  When factory pollution turned the local sky black and local dust from the mines made the soil the same color.

3. Jane paused in front of a counter where some attractive ties were on display.

4. One day, he came up with an idea that he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches

[解题技巧]

(1)连接两个功能对等的单词或短语时,应填并列连词and, or, butsoforeither…or…等。

(2)若两个句子(有两个主谓结构)之间,没有句号或分号,也没有并列连词,那空格处必定是填从属连词,否则,句子结构就不完整。

根据两句之间的意义和逻辑关系,或者根据句式结构,确定是并列句(多要求考生填and, but, or soforeither…or…)还是某种主从复合句。然后根据各类从句的特点,结合连接词的意义和用法,确定填具体的某个连词。

考点五:谓语动词     考查语法点: 谓语动词的时态及语态, 及主谓一致

    有提示词

     与主语构成主谓结构

1. I was certain she would like it because I was told (tell) by my classmates that she loved hot food.

2. His fear of failure kept (keep) him from classroom games that other children played with joyous abandon.

3.  Being too anxious to help an event develop often results (result) in the contrary to our intention.

考点六:非谓语动词    考查语法点: 非谓语动词doing/done/to do等的使用    

  1. We must also consider the reaction of the      person receiving (receive) the gift.      

  2. . …I then noticed that I had just 10 minutes      left to complete (complete) the      rest!

  3.  My      pupils, Donnie included (include),      adored her.

   4. Before the waitress could even finish describing the menu, my friend looked at me with his eyebrows(眉毛raised (raise).

注意 1.作目的状语或者在固定结构中,一般用to do形式。

2.名词前有 first, second,…last, only修饰时,后面要用to do  做后置定语。

考点七:词性转换      考查语法点: 各类词词性的正确使用及转化

    有提示词

     介词、冠词、所有格后接名词,形容词修饰名词、副词修饰形容词副词、动词或整个句子

1. “Thirty-five cents,” she said rudely (rude).

2. As far as I am concerned, my suggestion (suggest) is that we should always have a notebook and a Chinese-English dictionary within easy reach.

3. This proverb is saying we have to let things go in their natural (nature) course.

4. Undoubtedly (doubt), although there is still room for this policy to improve, I think it is still a good one which does more good than harm to the students and the nation.

考点八:形容词的级

    有提示词

    通常,有表示范围的in /of介词短语或形容词前有the时,一般要用最高级;than的前面一定要用比较级

1. One of the worst (bad) gift choices I ever made was for my high school English teacher… 

   2. … We were both laughing the whole time at our complete inability to communicate in words.

        When it was time to leave, I said “thank you” in Korean, using some of the few words I had learned. I felt less lonely (lonely) than I had expected that night.

3.      Lucille Clifton is an award-winning poet and writer. Critics call her one of the greatest (great) writers of our time.

解题四步走

四步走归根到底其实就是寻找依据.每一个语法填空的空格里所需的单词或短语其实都可以在所在的句子中或者上下文中找到它的依据

1.        通读全文,理解大意

2.        分析句子,确定词性

3.        根据语义, 确定词形

4.        检查搭配, 前后连贯

在解题过程中要先易后难,难题在大部分空格填好后,再经过仔细推敲,难题也就不会再难了。所有空格填好后,把整篇文章从头至尾复读一遍,从而达到最高得分。